Healthier quick and easy Sticky date pudding

healthy-sticky-date-pudding-3This weekend was another big one for me. On Saturday I competed in a 21km trail run in horrendous conditions. It had been pouring with rain all night and the trails were muddy to say the very least. My Hokas were so caked in mud that they were sliding off my feet as I was running. Every now and then a big chunk of mud would fly off my shoes and hit me in the back of the leg. Despite the conditions I still managed a win for the females and placed 4th overall. Then on Sunday I competed for the first time in the Flight Centre Cycle Epic.

Cycle Epic 2016 - Images © ESi sports photography

Here I am winning the 21km trail run

The Epic is an 87km mountain bike race consisting of a mixture of fire roads, single track, flowy single trails and some steep, rocky climbs. Due to the rain the race was postponed until 10am on Sunday and the course was shortened to 77kms. This was my longest mountain bike race to date. Actually, I haven’t done a lot of mountain bike racing and I was feeling a bit nervous prior to the start. I was concerned about the mud on the course and I was concerned that I would be slowing down faster riders. It took a good 30kms before I finally relaxed and started to enjoy the race. At the 40km mark I had a quick chat to our wonderful supporters, topped up my water, downed a mini Mars bar and continued for the last 37kms.

I felt more comfortable going in to the last 37kms because those riders who were doing the 40km race were finished at that point. This meant that there were less riders on the course and I did not have to worry about getting stuck behind slower riders or in front of faster riders. I really started to enjoy the race and felt like I was riding quite strong and confidently. I was pleased to finish the 77kms in just under 5 hours – faster than I expected – and 7th age group female.

Cycle Epic 2016 - Images © ESi sports photography

And here I am taking out the Female Overall Champion of Epic Endurance! My best trophy so far and the Shiraz was very nice.

I achieved my goal for the weekend, which was to take out the Female Overall Champion of Epic Endurance! Quite a name, isn’t it? I won this because I finished both the 21km trail run and the 87km (well 77km actually) mountain bike race with the fastest combined time. It was totally worth getting covered in mud for.

My eating was not great over the weekend. We camped over the weekend and I had burgers, beers and pizza at the Barn Bar. I was more focused on racing than anything else so I didn’t bother preparing any proper meals. During the mtb race I was doing Cliff bars, gels and my new favourite race food – mini Mars bars. These are the best. Rapidly digestible carbs that are tasty and easy to eat. And the chocolate makes you feel good. I also had a bottle of Trailbrew; a new energy/hydration mix made by my friend Troy.

So after a weekend of pretty junky food I was looking forward to getting back to eating well. That doesn’t mean I have to go without dessert. Tonight I had a go at making a healthier version of Sticky date pudding with a Warm caramel sauce. Our oven is in the process of being replaced so I made these mini Sticky date puddings using the microwave.

I made them with dates, erythritol, coconut flour, flaxmeal and coconut milk, so they are high in fibre and not loaded with refined carbohydrates. The warm caramel sauce was made with Greek yoghurt, coconut milk, erythritol and vanilla bean paste.

The combination of coconut flour and flaxmeal give the pudding a firm but soft texture. If you are not familiar with flaxmeal, or golden flaxseed meal, this is the product left after pressing flaxseeds to get flaxseed oil. Flaxseeds and linseeds are actually the same thing, however, flaxseed is used to describe flax when consumed as food while linseed is used to describe flax when it is used in industry or for animal feed. Flaxmeal is low in carbs, high in fibre and low in fat. The nutritional information tells me that it contains only 8.0 grams of carbohydrates per 100 grams, 33 grams of fibre per 100 grams and 12 grams of fat per 100 grams. It really is high in fibre so do not over consume flaxmeal. I found that it really gets my bowels moving and I can see how too much could cause gastrointestinal issues, so please be aware. A small amount of flaxmeal added to baking seems to give a doughy texture. I also like to make a little pudding with flaxmeal, as it takes on a gel consistency when combined with liquid.

healthy-sticky-date-puddingBack to the Sticky date pudding. Not only were these Sticky date puddings healthier than traditional sticky date pudding, which is full of sugar, butter and refined white flour, but they were very quick and easy to make. I blended all the ingredients together, poured the mixture into two small bowls and microwaved the puddings for 3.5 minutes each. That is it!

Healthier Sticky date pudding with warm caramel sauce

Makes 2 serves

Ingredients

½ cup pitted dates soaked in ½ cup of boiling water

½ cup coconut milk (I used low fat to reduce the calories)

1 tablespoon erythritol

¼ teaspoon cinnamon

½ teaspoon vanilla bean paste or vanilla extract

1 tablespoon flaxmeal

¼ cup coconut flour

½ teaspoon baking powder

2 eggs

Warm caramel sauce

1/3 cup Greek yoghurt

1/3 cup coconut milk

1 tablespoon erythritol

½ teaspoon vanilla bean paste

A few drops of maple extract

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

3 small microwave safe bowls

Food processor

Spoon

Fork

Method

  • Allow the dates to soak in the boiling water for at least 15 minutes.
  • Add the dates to the food processor and process until they are finely chopped.
  • Add in the remaining ingredients and process until the mixture is well combined and smooth.
  • Divide the pudding mixture between two small, microwave safe bowls.
  • Microwave each pudding for 3.5 minutes. This may vary depending on your microwave but I basically microwaved them until they were completely firm and starting to come away from the sides of the bowl.
  • While the puddings are cooking in the microwave, prepare the Warm caramel sauce by combing all the ingredients in a small, microwave safe bowl.
  • Mix until well combined (you could also add all the ingredients to a clean food processor and process to combine).
  • Microwave the sauce for 30 seconds. Give the sauce a mix. If it is warm enough do not microwave further. If it gets too hot the yoghurt will curdle.
  • Tip the puddings upside down onto two plates. Poke holes all over the warm puddings with a fork.
  • Pour the caramel sauce evenly over the puddings allowing it to soak in.
  • Serve and enjoy.healthy-stick-date-pudding-2

Healthier Peanut butter pretzel ice cream

Healthier peanut butter pretzel ice creamI am happy to say that I was part of a team of two that won a 12-hour adventure race this weekend. This race involved two of us paddling, trekking/running and mountain biking through the bush navigating our way to as many check points as possible in 12-hours. Well, to be honest, I did not navigate – that job was up to my partner, Gary, who is a very experienced navigator. After winning back-to-back trail marathons last weekend at the Lamington Eco Challenge http://gonyaadventures.com.au/ my legs felt a bit heavy and tired. But we still managed to come away with the overall win.

Here we are climbing up the face of a cliff - great view and heaps of fun

Here we are climbing up the face of a cliff – great view and heaps of fun

I was left with half a bag of crushed pretzels after the race. What was I to do with this seemingly useless food item? I decided to make a healthier version of Peanut butter pretzel ice cream. My version is healthier because I have reduced the calories by making the ‘ice cream’ with reduced fat coconut milk and Greek yoghurt. I used PB2, which is a powdered peanut butter with the majority of the fat removed http://www.bellplantation.com/index.php?route=about/about. PB2 is higher in carbs than peanut butter so if you are eating low carb then this might not be the best option for you. I sweetened the ‘ice cream’ with erythritol and added some vanilla bean paste for extra flavour.

And this is us paddling - I need to work on my technique

And this is us paddling – I need to work on my technique

OK, so pretzels probably aren’t really a health food but this version is surely better for you than typical store bought ice cream. The combination of peanut butter with the salty, crunchy pretzels was very delicious and after paddling, running and mountain biking for 12 hours I really wasn’t too concerned about eating excess carbohydrates. In fact I ate a whole pizza immediately after the race and it was great!

Healthier peanut butter pretzel ice cream 2Healthier Peanut butter pretzel ice cream

Makes 2 small serves

Ingredients

250ml of low fat coconut milk frozen in ice cube trays

¼ cup low fat Greek yoghurt

¼ cup PB2 (or just use regular peanut butter if you are not too concerned about calories)

2 tablespoons erythritol

½ teaspoon vanilla bean paste

½ cup crushed pretzels

Utensils

Ice cube trays

Measuring cups and spoons

Food processor or high-speed blender (I use an Ominblend – buy yours here)

Method

  • Add the frozen cubes of coconut milk to a food processor (run some hot water over the bottom of the ice cube trays if you are having trouble removing the frozen cubes).
  • Process until the frozen coconut milk is finely ground (I process one tray first then add the second tray).
  • Add in the Greek yoghurt, PB2 (or peanut butter), erythritol and vanilla bean paste and process until the mixture is smooth and creamy.
  • Finally add in the pretzels and process briefly until they are chopped finely and combined with the ice cream.
  • Divide the ice cream into two bowls and freeze for an additional 30 minutes before serving. Sprinkle with extra crushed pretzels.Healthier peanut butter pretzel ice cream 3

How I prepared for my first trail running race – I came second and there was not just 2 of us in the race!

Trail RunningLast Sunday I ran my first trail running race. I have completed trail runs in adventure/multi-sport races and off-road triathlons, however this was my first official trail run. I am pleased to say that I came second in the long course (11.2kms) out of 88 women. I was hoping to finish in the top 10, so second place was a nice surprise. So how did I prepare for this race? Here are a few tips that will help you do well in your first trail running race:

  1. Run on the trails. This may seem obvious but it is absolutely essential. And I mean real trails. The rockier, hillier and uneven the better. I have discovered some new trails in my area, which have been great. Plus I have been running on single track after mountain biking, which has also been great preparation.
  2. Run hills – sprints and on longer runs. Again this is essential. Running hills builds strength as well as endurance. Also you need to get used to putting in a hard effort to climb a hill then quickly recovering to maintain your pace on flat sections.
  3. Learn how to run down hill. I have recently started running with a group of experienced adventure racers. I had no idea that there was such a skill to running down hill. You must lean forward, kick your heels up to your backside and use your arms to balance yourself. Being a fast down hill runner means you can gain time without putting in a lot of effort.

Trail running is a lot of fun. You enjoy nature while getting fit at the same time. It requires a different kind of fitness than road running. In a trail running race you are putting in efforts to run up hills then navigating over rocks then running down hill. If you are looking for a new challenge and are getting tired of running on the road I suggest you look for a trail running group in your area and enter your first race.

Coconut, raspberry and cinnamon cake (no refined carbs)

Coconut rasperry cinnamon sliceThis delicious, refined carbohydrate free cake was my dessert after my first off road triathlon on Saturday. I was up at 3:30am so that I could eat breakfast, drink coffee and pack my car before driving for an hour and a half to be at transition when it opened at 6:30am. This race was the first of the TreX Off Road triathlon series for 2015/16. The race consisted of a 350m dam swim, a 10km mountain bike (2 x 5km laps) and a 4km trail run completed twice! I finished second in the open females (OK so there was only 2 of us in the open division) but I was pleased with my run times which were the fastest for the females. I need to work on my mountain bike skills, however. Check out the photos on my facebook page.

Back to the cake. After consuming carbs for breakfast before the race I reverted back to my usual low carbohydrate diet and came up with this cake. I topped it with a Vanilla cream made with Greek yoghurt, stevia and vanilla extract. The protein assisted with recovery while the fats provided by the coconut helped me get back into fat utilization mode.

Coconut raspberry cinnamon cakeCoconut, raspberry and cinnamon cake

Ingredients

½ cup coconut flour

½ desiccated coconut

1 tablespoon stevia

½ teaspoon cinnamon

1 teaspoon baking powder

½ cup frozen raspberries

1 cup coconut milk

½ teaspoon vanilla extract

2 egg whites

Vanilla cream

1/2 cup Greek yoghurt

1 teaspoon stevia

1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

Large mixing bowl

Spoon

20cm x 20cm baking tray

Baking paper

Small mixing bowl

Method

  • Preheat oven to 170°C (we have recently moved and I am still figuring out how to bake with the new oven).
  • Combine the coconut flour, coconut, stevia, cinnamon and baking powder into a large mixing bowl. Mix well to combine.
  • Add in the frozen raspberries and mix them through the dry ingredients.
  • Add in the coconut milk, vanilla extract and egg whites and mix together the wet and dry ingredients.
  • Pour the mixture into a 20cm x 20cm baking tray lined with baking paper and bake for about 35 minutes or until the cake is firm and starts to turn golden brown.
  • For the Vanilla cream combine all the ingredients into a small mixing bowl and mix well. Pour over the Coconut, raspberry and cinnamon cake.

My second adventure race plus how ‘fat adaptation’ has made me a better endurance athlete

GC adventure race paddle 2My alarm went off at 4:30am… but I think I was already awake. I jumped out of bed ready to go, slightly nervous while quite excited at the same time. My breakfast on race day morning consisted of ½ cup of rolled oats with coconut milk, blueberries, yoghurt, cocoa powder, walnuts, coconut, whey protein powder and honey; far higher in carbohydrates than I typically consume, which I will discuss later. Oh and of course a strong cup of coffee. I am a huge advocate of the performance enhancing abilities of caffeine. My nerves calmed as I ate my breakfast.

Adventure race 1 copyWith fuel out of the way it was time to load up my car in preparation for my second adventure race. Well, technically this was a multisport race as true ‘adventure’ racing involves a navigational component. Although this race would be off the beaten track, the trail run and mountain bike courses were to be marked with tape. The race that I was about to embark on consisted of a 1.5km ocean swim, a 13km ocean and creek paddle, a 12km trail run, a 22km mountain bike and concluded with a 2km run to the finish line. It was the Gold Coast Adventure race, formerly the Anacoda Adventure race. This was a race I had fantasized about participating in for a few years. I contemplated the idea of entering as a team, perhaps with the boyfriend completing the paddle and mountain bike leg while I would do the swim and trail run. I also thought about doing Course 2, which lacked the ocean swim and ocean paddle. But earlier this year I made the decision that I would be completing the full event (Course 1) as an individual.

So back to loading up my small, hatchback Toyota corolla with my 14 foot (approximately 4 meters), 17kg paddle ski, the paddle for the paddle ski, my wetsuit, goggles, swimming cap, mountain bike, helmet, gloves, water pack, running shoes, towel and nutrition for the day. My nutrition took up barely any room as it consisted of one espresso gel and two pieces of a homemade oat and nut slice. This may seem like very little for what would be a race lasting over 6 hours, but I will discuss in more detail later how I am able to fuel my endurance racing by burning my own fat stores.

I packed my car, woke up the boyfriend to say goodbye and headed off for the first transition point to drop off my gear for the run leg. The next stop was the mountain bike transition then it was off to the start line. The race started at Currumbin Alley, the point at which Currumbin Creek meets the Pacific Ocean. Both the swim and the paddle were to commence from this point.

GC adventure race swim startThe weather was not great. There were some clouds looming overhead. It had rained during the night and my thoughts wandered to the mountain bike track, sections of which I imagined would be muddy and slippery. Oh well, there was nothing I could do about that now. The time for the race to begin was drawing closer so I put on my wetsuit and prepared for the race briefing. I noticed that there was only one other woman starting Course 1. I compared my ski to hers and felt somewhat deflated. I had a short, stumpy, plastic ski while hers was a long, slender racing ski. Did I stand a chance to beat her?

GC adventure race swimThe 14 of us participating in Course 1 headed over to the swim start. I felt nervous again. Gary, the awesome race director had earlier grabbed my shoulders and said “Lucy, what are you so worried about? You are here to have fun”. I repeated his words in my mind. What was the worst that could happen? If I lost my ski entering through the creek mouth then I would just have to swim after it; something I had done many times before. And I would just have to take it easy on the steep sections of the mountain bike course given the wet conditions. Everything would be fine I told myself.

GC adventure race paddle startThe swim started and I was pleased to find myself in the middle of the pack. We headed out through the waves around the first buoy. The surf was quite flat that day so the swim did not trouble me at all. I struggled slightly finding the final buoy but managed to get around it and started to make my way in to the shore. I tore off my wetsuit as I ran up the beach to where the skis were waiting. Again I was pleasantly surprised to see that my ski was far from the last one on the shore. But I knew I had the slowest ski so I wasn’t going to be surprised if I was overtaken by the majority of the field.

paddleski waveI paddled my ski out through the waves with no problems. Two guys passed me as we paddled through the ocean towards the creek mouth. I had arranged for the boyfriend to meet me at the mouth of the Tallebudgera Creek to guide me through the paddle in. He was there as promised. The tide was going out so I felt slightly concerned that if I lost my ski it would get washed out to sea. I lined up a small wave to catch in and paddled hard. I rode the wave and as it crashed behind me I tipped out of my ski. I quickly jumped back in and began paddling hard again. I was now in still water. What had I been so worried about?

GC adventure race paddle 3The boyfriend paddled with me for a bit, passing on words of encouragement. I saw that two more guys had passed me on much better skis. It was disappointing but what could I expect. The paddle seemed to take forever. At one point I feared that I had somehow taken a wrong turn in the creek and was off course. I was relieved when I paddled up to the bank and the wonderful volunteers were there to carry my ski up while I headed to the run transition.

I chucked on my shoes, put on my water pack and slammed down my espresso gel. The caffeine hit was just what I needed after the 1.5km swim and 13km paddle. At that point I noticed my water pack had been leaking! There was a tiny dribble of water left which I quickly drank as I began the run. Again, there was nothing I could do about this now. Time to get running.

GC adventure race runThe run course was totally fun. I was running along the creek’s edge; crossing the creek multiple times. I ran over rocks, through thick shrub, under trees, through mud, down hills, up hills; I was having a ball! I passed several people during the run, which made me feel confident. I was sure that I had not seen the only other female competitor doing Course 1. I finished the run feeling strong but slightly thirsty. I asked another one of the fabulous volunteers in the bike transition if she had any water. She kindly poured some into my water pack only for it to start leaking down my back. I jumped on my bike, had a bit to eat and began heading for the first steep climb. Once I reached the top of the first climb the course entered the QLD/NSW border track; a rolling section of fire trails and single track. At this point I drank the last of my remaining water, ate the last of my food and began.

GC adventure race bikeAgain, I found this section of the race fun. I think that is my favourite part of adventure/multisport racing; I was actually having fun while racing. Although triathlon and marathon running do have moments of fun (like when you finish), these races are more about going as fast as you can physically and mentally stand. I am also thoroughly enjoying the training for off road races. Last weekend my training session consisted of mountain biking on some single track surrounded by trees and shrubs, followed by a run on the same track. I was thinking ‘This is great!” I definitely have not had as much structure in my training leading up to this adventure race. I haven’t been focusing on my speed or pace or how many reps in a session. This is very different to when I was training for triathlon or for marathons. I would ensure that just about every training session had a structure and a purpose. Now don’t get me wrong, I am all for structured training. Having a regimented training regime did wonders for my fitness and ability as a multisport racer. But at the moment I am enjoying the freedom of actually really liking my training. If you are a triathlete or road cyclist or a road runner but are seeking a new challenge, I suggest trying some off road races. There are plenty of trail runs, mountain biking events or paddling events to choose from – or a combine all three and do a multisport event!

run 2Back to the race. The mountain bike section went well. I enjoyed it. I only had a couple of minor slips and I felt pretty strong. I came into the final transition to see the wonderful boyfriend with his camera. The final leg was a 2km run to the finish. Due to my background in triathlon I was used to running hard off the bike – so that is what I did. I ran hard to the finish and I was absolutely thrilled not only to finish, but also to find out that I was the first female finisher! My final time was 6:10:52. I was 6th out of the swim but dropped back to 12th after the paddle ski leg. I made up some ground in the run and the bike to finish 10th overall out of a field of 14. My ski leg really let me down and now I want a faster ski. Nevertheless I had a great day and again I suggest that if you are looking for something to new to try give multisport racing and off road triathlon a go.

finish 2Now as I mentioned earlier, I want to talk about my nutrition for the day. I did not feel hungry or fatigued once during the race. Although I will admit that the pace of this race was not as intense as what I am I used to for triathlon or road running, there certainly was bursts of intensity, particularly during the mountain bike. But for a 6 hour+ race I felt good and my energy levels felt consistent. I honestly believe that my low carbohydrate diet, which includes a decent amount of fats is the reason for this. I have always avoided carbohydrates at night since the age of 18, however, last year when I was training for the Gold Coast Marathon I decided that I wanted to really reduce the refined carbohydrates from my diet. At the time I was eating oats and fruit for breakfast and often having fruit at lunch. Also, I had been vegetarian for 10 years and it was at this time that I started to introduce a small amount of meat back into my diet. I immediately lost weight, some of which was likely fluid as a result of reducing carbohydrates. But I have found that a whole food diet that is higher in fat with moderate protein, plenty of vegetables and limited refined carbohydrates and fruit helps me to maintain a healthy weight range. What I am now realizing is that this way of eating has helped me to also become a better endurance athlete as I am able to efficiently burn fat as fuel source and not rely on constant source of carbohydrates. Is this all in my head? No, the science is now showing that ‘fat adaptation’ can increase the rate at which the body oxidizes fat for energy and decreases the rate at which the muscles use glycogen.

Fat adaptation

Fatigue during endurance exercise, defined as a submaximal effort lasting greater than 2 hours, is associated with low muscle glycogen concentrations. Glycogen depletion is a function of the initial or pre-exercise glycogen concentration and its rate of utilization during exercise. Typically, nutritional strategies for endurance exercise focus on ways to increase the amount of available carbohydrates by maximizing carbohydrate storage in the muscles and liver in the days or hours leading up to an event, referred to as ‘carb loading’. In my personal opinion carb loading is completely over used, particularly by amateur athletes competing in events less than 2 hours where glycogen depletion is not actually a problem. An alternative strategy to delay fatigue and improve performance in endurance events is to enhance the ability to oxidise or burn fat as an energy source while reducing the rate of muscle glycogen utilization.

A well-nourished adult can store approximately 500 grams or 2 000 kcal of carbohydrates. Of this, approximately 400 grams are stored as muscle glycogen, 90-110 grams as liver glycogen, and 25 grams circulate in the blood as glucose. In comparison, a lean adult with as little as 7 – 14% body fat, still has over 30 000 kcal of fat reserves. It makes sense to try and tap into this abundant fuel supply. How can this be achieved? ‘Fat adaptation’ is a protocol in which endurance athletes consume a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet for up to 14 days during their normal training schedule (1, 2). Studies have repeatedly shown that fat adaptation strategies drastically increase whole-body rates of fat oxidation during submaximal or steady state exercise (60-70% of VO2 max) in already well-trained athletes, exceeding the rates typically induced by endurance training alone. However, the impact that fat adaptation has on performance has shown variable results (3). This is because high-fat low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced muscle glycogen content, which can lead to fatigue in endurance sporting events (4). The ideal scenario is to follow fat adaptation with a period of carbohydrate restoration. Carbohydrate restoration is achieved by consuming a high-carbohydrate diet and tapering for 1 – 3 days thus restoring muscle glycogen levels in the athlete who now has a higher rate of fat oxidation (5-7).

The proposed mechanisms explaining fat adaptation include increases in fatty acid transporters in the membranes of skeletal muscle cells (8), increases in the activity of the enzyme that transports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase complex (CPT1) (9, 10), increases in fatty acid availability, increases in the levels of intramuscular fat storage (7) and decreases in the key enzyme controlling the oxidation of carbohydrates (11). Basically fat adaptation makes the muscles more efficient at burning fat as a fuel source and spares the amount of glycogen used; perfect for long, endurance events performed at moderate intensities.

Most studies have investigated short-term fat adaptation protocols, however, I am more interested in long-term fat adaptation. Although for the last 12 years or so I have typically tried to limit carbohydrates to earlier in the day, for the last year and a half I have really reduced my carbohydrate intake and consumed more fat. When I first began this strategy, I found that some training sessions seemed harder than usual. This is also reflected in the research. For example, one study evaluated the perceived exertion of subjects during training before and after a 7-week adaptation to either a fat-rich or carbohydrate-rich diet. Before the adaptation period there was no difference in the perceived exertion. In contrast, after the 7 weeks of diet intervention, training was perceived as more strenuous after the fat-rich diet compared to the carbohydrate-rich diet (12). This higher perceived exertion during training while on a high-fat diet has also been observed in elite-trained subjects (13). The reasons for this higher mental effort needed to sustain training while switching to a lower-carbohydrate diet are not clear, but may be due to altered autonomic nervous system activity resulting in an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic response (12).

For a professional athlete, compromising training sessions could result in missing out on a pay day, however, for a top end amateur athlete such as myself, I have learnt to push through these tough training sessions in a carb depleted state, focusing on the long term benefits. You may also find that higher intensity sessions are mentally more challenging at first when switching to a low-carbohydrate diet, but again over time you can become used to this.

As far as I can tell, there have been no controlled studies investigating the effects of fat adaptation on endurance athletic performance beyond 7 weeks. I predict that long-term studies on fat adaptation will begin to surface as the field of sports nutrition questions the importance of carbohydrates to endurance performance. Professor Timothy Noakes is a sports scientist who is a huge advocate of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, also known as ‘banting’ and has spent years conducting research in this area. I am a huge fan of his work and one of his more recent articles published in the European Journal of Sport Science this year entitled ‘Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise’ is a great read on this topic (14). Professor Louise Burke is another expert in this field who has published a substantial amount of work on fat adaptation in endurance athletes (4, 5).

Something else that I have always done, even many years ago when I was competing in muay thai, is train on an empty stomach in the morning. Occasionally I will have a very small snack of some nuts or a teaspoon of nut butter, but I am able to train up to 3 hours without eating. I always did this intuitively thinking that this would enhance my endurance (plus I am not hungry at 5am), and now the research supports this. Endurance training in a fasted state, where blood glucose levels are low, stimulates the rate of adipose tissue lipolysis (the break down of fats) (15), stimulates the breakdown of intramyocellular lipids (fats stored within muscle cells) (16) and upregulates the capacity of muscles cells to use fat oxidation for energy production (17). Training in a fasted state is another strategy to enhance your ability to utilize fat as a fuel source, although it can be difficult mentally at first.

run 1So in summary I believe that a long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet combined with fasted training sessions has metabolic benefits for endurance athletes. Following this mode of eating allows your muscles to more efficiently burn fat as a fuel source while reducing the amount of carbohydrates that are utilized, referred to as ‘glycogen sparing’. In races lasting up to 6 hours I have never once ‘bonked’ or ‘hit the wall’ and I need very little calories. In my latest adventure race lasting over 6 hours I consumed one gel after the paddle then ate 2 pieces of oat and nut slice during the run and during the mountain bike. My energy levels felt consistent throughout the entire race. I did consume carbohydrates the night before and at breakfast the morning of the race, which I believe are essential for optimal performance when following a low-carbohydrate diet. Topping up your glycogen stores prior to the race ensures you can get through those bursts of high intensity, such as steep climbs on the mountain bike. While I am not quite following a ‘ketogenic’ diet because I do eat quite a lot of non-starchy vegetables and I enjoy beans, which provide me with some carbohydrates, my diet is pretty low carb. I rarely eat refined carbohydrates, meaning no refined sweeteners or grains, and I limit my fruit intake.

This way of eating may not be suited to all types of athletes, especially those participating in more explosive, intense sports of a short duration. But if you have long term goals for competing in endurance events then I believe that training your body to utilize fat more efficiently as a fuel source can be beneficial to your performance. There are some caveats that go with the transition to a low-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet; firstly your training sessions may seem harder at first and may suffer in the short term, but you will adapt. Secondly fat takes longer to digest than carbohydrates or protein, so I find that I need to wait longer for a high fat meal to digest before training. For this reason, fat is very satisfying and will keep you feeling full far longer than any carbohydrate rich meal. Keep these points in mind when you embark on a low-carbohydrate higher-fat diet. I believe that this way of eating is well suited to endurance athletes. You can find plenty of tasty, nutritious low carb meals on my blog to get you started.

  1. Lambert EV, Speechly DP, Dennis SC, & Noakes TD (1994) Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology 69(4):287-293.
  2. Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Evans WJ, Gervino E, & Blackburn GL (1983) The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism: clinical and experimental 32(8):769-776.
  3. Yeo WK, Carey AL, Burke L, Spriet LL, & Hawley JA (2011) Fat adaptation in well-trained athletes: effects on cell metabolism. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme 36(1):12-22.
  4. Burke LM, Kiens B, & Ivy JL (2004) Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. Journal of sports sciences 22(1):15-30.
  5. Burke LM, et al. (2000) Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling. Journal of applied physiology 89(6):2413-2421.
  6. Stellingwerff T, et al. (2006) Decreased PDH activation and glycogenolysis during exercise following fat adaptation with carbohydrate restoration. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 290(2):E380-388.
  7. Yeo WK, et al. (2008) Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate restoration increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle from trained humans. Journal of applied physiology 105(5):1519-1526.
  8. Cameron-Smith D, et al. (2003) A short-term, high-fat diet up-regulates lipid metabolism and gene expression in human skeletal muscle. The American journal of clinical nutrition 77(2):313-318.
  9. Fisher EC, et al. (1983) Changes in skeletal muscle metabolism induced by a eucaloric ketogenic diet. Biochemistry of exercise, eds Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, & Poortmans J (Human Kinetics, Champaign), Vol 3, pp 497-501.
  10. Goedecke JH, et al. (1999) Metabolic adaptations to a high-fat diet in endurance cyclists. Metabolism: clinical and experimental 48(12):1509-1517.
  11. Peters SJ, St Amand TA, Howlett RA, Heigenhauser GJ, & Spriet LL (1998) Human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity increases after a low-carbohydrate diet. The American journal of physiology 275(6 Pt 1):E980-986.
  12. Helge JW (2002) Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 34(9):1499-1504.
  13. Stepto NK, Martin DT, Fallon KE, & Hawley JA (2001) Metabolic demands of intense aerobic interval training in competitive cyclists. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 33(2):303-310.
  14. Volek JS, Noakes T, & Phinney SD (2015) Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise. European journal of sport science 15(1):13-20.
  15. Horowitz JF, Mora-Rodriguez R, Byerley LO, & Coyle EF (1997) Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. The American journal of physiology 273(4 Pt 1):E768-775.
  16. De Bock K, et al. (2005) Exercise in the fasted state facilitates fibre type-specific intramyocellular lipid breakdown and stimulates glycogen resynthesis in humans. The Journal of physiology 564(Pt 2):649-660.
  17. Van Proeyen K, Szlufcik K, Nielens H, Ramaekers M, & Hespel P (2011) Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state. Journal of applied physiology 110(1):236-245.

 

 

The bad news and the good news from my first adventure race

The bad news is that I did not beat my boyfriend. The good news is that I was the first individual female and won a $100 gift voucher! I must confess that I was the ONLY individual female so the competition was not exactly tough. Although I am a bit disappointed that I had no other girls to compete against, I did feel kind of brave that no other girl was willing to take this race on.

Adventure race 6Now for a race report. We arrived at the check in point to find out that there were only 19 people in total in the race – individual and teams. My first thought was ‘I am going to come dead last’ and I wanted to go home.

It had rained overnight and there were still some clouds in the sky which threatened more rain. The boyfriend and I set up our skis, paddles and nutrition in the first transition area and headed over with our bikes to where the race briefing would take place. The small field of competitors gathered around and we were informed that the mountain bike track was muddy and slippery due to the rain. This news made me feel quite nervous as my mountain bike skills are limited.Adventure race 7The race brief was over and me and all the other guys headed over to the start. The start of the mountain bike leg consisted of an up hill ride on the road before entering the single track. In order to access the single track, we had to carry our bikes up a very steep rocky, slippery section. I felt quite nervous and when I finally got to the top and jumped on my bike I started pedaling over a rocky section and fell off! Not a good start to the race. Anyway, I continued on to the single track and found that it was extremely muddy and slippery. I had a few slips and falls in the mud, but then I started to relax and feel more comfortable and actually started to enjoy the race.

It was tough. The track was muddy, wet and rocky. Some sections of the track were so steep and slippery that I was forced to jump off my bike and push my bike up hill. I felt pretty relieved when I finally saw the last section of the single track.

To end the 16km mountain bike leg we had to descend back down the road. Mud was flying off my tires in every direction. Some splattered right in my face. I dumped my bike at the first transition area and I asked the race organisers ‘Am I last?’ I was pleased to hear that I wasn’t and as I ran towards my ski I saw that there was one other ski still left on creek’s edge. The boyfriend was way ahead at this point, by the way, but I was happy that I was not in last place.Adventure race paddleI took off my muddy shoes, slammed down a gel, carried my ski into the creek and took off. I was paddling on my own for the whole 7kms. I made sure I stayed focused the whole time and concentrated on using my torso with each stroke.

As I approached the shore to end the paddle, my parents were waiting cheering me on. Having the support of family and friends always perks me up during a race. I jumped out of my ski and my legs felt like jelly. I pulled my ski up onto the beach, put on fresh socks and muddy shoes and began the 8km beach run. Adventure race 4The sun was out at this point and it was actually quite warm. Thankfully the tide was low so we did not have to run in the soft sand. The run consisted of 4km in one direction then 4km back. I passed the other guys in the race as they were heading back to the finish, giving high fives and words of encouragement. I passed the boyfriend as he was heading back. There was no way I could catch him at this point. My legs just would not run any faster and he was too far ahead. I maintained a decent pace and finished the race in a time of 2:50:19. I came 9th overall out of 10 and (surprise, surprise) won the first female prize!

This adventure race was tough but it was fun and very rewarding and satisfying to complete. I was extremely proud of the boyfriend who finished in 2:35:00 considering how little training he had done, particularly for the run. How did we compare for each leg? He did 1:00 for 15km mountain bike while I did 1:19, he did 48:55 for the 7km paddle while I did 49:50 and he did 45:55 for the 8km beach run while I did 41:29. I was pretty pleased with my paddle time, which was only 55 seconds slower! Thank you to Matt for putting on a great race (www.wildthingrace.com).

Adventure race 5If you are typically a runner or a triathlete and are looking for a new challenge, I highly recommend an adventure race. Adventure racing is logistically more difficult than triathlon as you require a paddle ski. This piece of equipment can be expensive and difficult to store and transport. If you have the opportunity to get a hold of one and you have access to still water to train in, I say go for it. As I mentioned in a previous post, having a fitness goal to work towards with your partner is a totally fun experience and great for building the relationship. Look for an event that you and your partner can train together for now!

Can I, the ex-triathlete, beat my boyfriend, the skateboarding, surfing carpenter, in our first adventure race?

Lucy vs IanThis Sunday my boyfriend, Ian, and I are participating in our first adventure race. The race consists of a 16km mountain bike, a 7km creek paddle and an 8km beach run. Honestly, we have not been doing much training. Compared to how much I prepared for a triathlon in the past, it is not much at all. But we are both pretty fit. So the question is can I beat my boyfriend in our first adventure race?

Let’s weigh up our strengths and weaknesses.

Me

Lucy

Strengths = Competed in triathlon for over 2 years, over 10 years of consistent running training, currently running 3 – 4 times a week including hill sprints, intervals and medium distance runs, good endurance fitness, currently training with kettlebells which are good for muscular endurance, creek paddling twice a week for the past 3 weeks, hates losing

Weaknesses = A bit of a pussy on the mountain bike, average skills on the mountain bike, not a lot of paddle experience

The boyfriend

Ian

Strengths = Naturally fit, explosive fitness from skateboarding and surfing, many years of ocean paddle experience, ballsy on the mountain bike, physically strong

Weaknesses = Minimal running training (basically never runs), lack of endurance, current foot injury from skateboarding

I predict that the boyfriend will beat me in both the mountain bike leg and the creek paddle, however, if he does not have too much of a lead, I could possibly catch him in the run. My only chance is that he really starts to fatigue towards the end of the run and that’s when I strike! If I can catch him in that beach run then victory is mine! The problem is that the run is the shortest component of the race. I need to ensure that he is not too far in front of me by the time we get to the run. There is nothing like a little bit of healthy competition to bring out the best in people.

To be honest, we will both be happy just to finish (secretly I will be even happier if I beat him). Having a goal that we have both been training for together has been great for the relationship and has boosted both of our motivation to train. I highly recommend entering some sort of event with your partner to get you both motivated to workout and to bring you closer together as a couple.