How to prepare a smoothie bowl correctly (without making it full of calories and sugar)

Carrot cake flax meal bowl pourI am now affiliated with Omniblend Australia. I was quite keen to establish this relationship because I have had my high-speed 1.5L OmniBlend V for over 5 years and I use it all the time to make smoothie bowls for breakfast and tasty and healthy desserts.

Please don’t be put off by this affiliate relationship. I enjoy chronicling my whole food, refined carbohydrate free recipes and researching and writing on topics in health, nutrition and athletic performance, but this takes time. So receiving some financial support would make my blogging experience all the more enjoyable.

I consider myself a person with integrity so I will explain to you exactly why I am happy to recommend OmniBlend high-speed blenders.

Firstly, let’s get one thing clear. I believe that smoothies and smoothie bowls are a bit of a fad in the health space. You do not need to make a beautiful acai bowl everyday to be healthy. Getting regular exercise and eating a diet containing plenty of vegetables, lean meats, eggs, fermented dairy, legumes, beans and some nuts, seeds and fruits will also set you up to be quite healthy.

I personally enjoy smoothie bowls for a number of reasons, which I will describe below, but they must be prepared correctly. Smoothies can be a source of many, many calories in the form of fructose from too much fruit or honey, or in the form of sucrose (common sugar) from sweetened frozen yoghurts. People drink them under the illusion that they are ‘healthy’, however, in reality they can contain as many calories and carbohydrates as a chocolate bar. Sure there is more nutritional value in a fruit smoothie than a chocolate bar, but if you are trying to lose weight a smoothie filled with fruits, juice and honey is not the best option. Plus I find that drinking my breakfast does not leave me satisfied and I am tempted to seek out more food.

Here are some guidelines to follow to ensure that you create a lower carbohydrate, high protein, nutritional and satisfying smoothie bowl that you can enjoy on a regular basis:

  • Use minimal fruit – don’t throw 2 bananas, an apple and an orange into your blender to make your smoothie bowl. If you are going to use fruit stick to ½ cup of frozen berries or pitted cherries or 1 small frozen orange.
  • Add a serving of a good quality whey or plant based protein powder – I realize that protein powder is not a ‘whole food’ but I don’t always feel like or have the time for eggs for breakfast so protein powder is a convenient way to boost the protein content of your smoothie bowl while adding texture and flavour. My favourite whey protein powder is Glyco-Whey from Syntec and my favourite plant-based protein powder is Power Plant Protein from Prana ON. Both are fairly pricy but worth it for the quality. I like to cycle between the two as I believe too much whey may not be good for your health long term.
  • Use low fat coconut milk, coconut water, plain Greek yoghurt and/or cottage cheese as liquid – avoid using high sugar juices as the liquid base for your smoothies. Instead try the options I have listed as they are low in carbohydrates, fairly low in calories and the yoghurt and cottage cheese increase the protein content.
  • Throw in some greens – I always use frozen spinach in my smoothie bowls for extra vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre and to help thicken the mixture. If you have any other greens that are getting a bit old, such as kale or baby spinach, throw them in your blender. Avocado is another great addition (remember it is higher in calories, however). If you are concerned about the taste I can assure you that the other ingredients mask the flavour.
  • Add in cocoa powder or flavour extracts for some variety.
  • Use at least one tray of ice cubes – ice thickens your smoothies turning them into a meal that you can eat from a bowl. I mentally feel more satisfied knowing that I have eaten my breakfast.
  • Add some additional fibre by adding a tablespoon of flax meal, psyllium husks or chia seeds. A word of warning regarding flax meal and psyllium husks: both are very high in dietary fibre and will likely cause you to use the bathroom more frequently than normal if you use too much.
  • Sprinkle some coconut flakes, shredded coconut, seeds, nuts or cocoa nibs on top of your smoothie for extra nutrients and texture. Don’t go too crazy with the nuts and seeds if you are actively trying to lose weight.

So there are my guidelines for preparing smoothie bowls based on my personal opinion, as well as my many, many years of reading scientific literature on weight loss and nutrition. It is a fact that excess refined carbohydrates are detrimental to your health in multiple ways, hence why I follow a diet as low in refined carbohydrates as possible (the occasional ice cream, pizza and beer is not going to cause too much damage, especially before a big race).

Now let me tell you why I enjoy smoothie bowls. Firstly, smoothie bowls are quick and easy to prepare. I am up between 4:00 – 4:30am most mornings to train before work, be it running on the trails, hill training, running intervals, mountain biking, road biking, strength training or paddling. I then need to quickly fuel myself, while checking emails or social media, to prepare for a minimum of 8 hours in the lab. My work day involves designing and executing experiments, not only for myself but also for students, meetings with my boss or other work colleagues to discuss data or new ideas, collating data and writing scientific papers. In other words, I’m pretty busy. Making a smoothie bowl for breakfast allows me to quickly throw everything into my OmniBlend, blend for 5 minutes (I’m usually making coffee during this period), pour it into a bowl and eat with a spoon.

Secondly, I can make smoothie bowls very nutrient dense. I can throw in a combination of spinach, kale, flax meal, coconut milk, cottage cheese, Greek yoghurt, berries, nut butter or cocoa powder, along with ice and a good quality whey or plant based protein powder and I end up with a mixture of protein, good quality fats, dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals.

Finally, I quite like the taste and texture. A delicious cold smoothie bowl after training, especially in summer, loaded with protein and some fat is a great way to recover.

My relationship with OmniBlend means that if you purchase an OmniBlend product through my affiliate link (http://www.omniblendaustralia.com.au/ref/54/) I will receive a small commission. The price of the 1.5L OmniBlend V with a 7 year warranty and free shipping is $379AUD. All OmniBlend machines have a heavy duty 3HP/2238 Watt motor, full stainless steel 6 blade assembly and a BPA free jug. If we compare this to the 1.2L S30 high-performance blender from Vitamix, which has only a 790 Watt or 1HP motor, it has a recommended retail price of $845AUD. That is a significant difference in price and I believe the OmniBlend is the superior machine. After 5 years of use I replaced the blade in my OmniBlend for $59AUD with free shipping and it is working better than ever. I apologise for turning into a salesperson but I honestly believe in this product and am happy to promote this brand, not only for making breakfasts, but also for making frozen desserts, dips and nut and coconut butters.

OK, enough promoting the OmniBlend. Here are some smoothie bowl recipes I have recently used my OmniBlend to make.

Chocolate raspberry smoothie bowlChocolate raspberry green smoothie bowl

This smoothie bowl is a tasty combination of chocolate and raspberries with frozen spinach for extra vitamins and minerals.

Makes 1 serve

Ingredients

½ cup frozen raspberries

1 cup low fat coconut milk

¼ cup Greek yoghurt

3 tablespoons cocoa powder

4 blocks frozen spinach

1 tablespoon psyllium husks or flax meal (for extra fibre)

1 tray of ice cubes

1 serve of a good quality whey or plant based protein powder (vanilla flavour)

Nuts, seeds, coconut, cocao nibs or anything nutritious to sprinkle on top

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

High-speed blender (I use an Omniblend – buy yours here)

Method

  • Place all the ingredients into a high-speed blender. Blend on medium to high for at least 5 minutes until the mixture is smooth and of an even consistency. Use the tamper (the mixing stick I guess you would say) to stir during blending.

Carrot cake flax meal bowl

Carrot cake flax meal breakfast bowl

This is an interesting concoction I came up with. It tastes like a smooth creamy, spicy carrot cake without all the calories and refined carbohydrates. The flax meal adds a decent amount of dietary fibre while the cottage cheese provides some protein. Top this bowl with some nuts, seeds and/or coconut to make it more satisfying.

Makes 1 serve

Ingredients

1 medium carrot, roughly chopped

2 tablespoons flax meal

½ cup cottage cheese

½ cup low fat coconut milk

1 tablespoon erythritol/stevia blend (I use Natvia)

A few drops vanilla extract

½ teaspoon cinnamon

¼ teaspoon ground ginger

¼ teaspoon nutmeg

Utensils

Chopping board

Sharp knife

Measuring cups and spoons

High-speed blender (I use an OmniBlend – buy yours here)

Method

  • Place all the ingredients into a high-speed blender. Blend on medium to high for at least 5 minutes until the mixture is smooth and of an even consistency. Use the tamper to stir during blending.

Low carb chocolate, peanut butter and cinnamon green smoothie bowl

Chocolate peanut butter smoothie bowlThis green smoothie has everything you need for a nutritious, complete meal all blended up in the convenience of a bowl. It is filled with satisfying fats from the peanut butter, coconut milk and avocado, contains protein from the whey powder and Greek yoghurt and has an array of vitamins and minerals from the cocoa powder, avocado and spinach. It is a perfect way to refuel after a long training session or if you want a tasty and simple breakfast.

Chocolate, peanut butter and cinnamon green smoothie bowl

Ingredients

Makes 1 serve

2 tablespoons peanut butter

2 tablespoons cocoa powder

2 tablespoons Greek yoghurt

½ cup coconut milk

1 teaspoon cinnamon

¼ of an avocado

2 scoops of a good quality chocolate flavoured whey protein powder

3 blocks frozen spinach

2 trays of ice cubes

Nuts and coconut to sprinkle on top

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

High-speed blender

Method

  • Add all the ingredients to a high-speed blender and blend until the mixture is a smooth, even consistency. This takes 5 – 10 minutes with stirring during the process.
  • Pour the smoothie into a bowl, decorate with nuts and coconut and eat with a spoon.

Lower carb berry and coconut muffins

Lower carb berry coconut muffinsSometimes I fail epically in the kitchen. This is a result of spending years and years attempting to create low carb, lower calorie, whole food, nutritious meals and recipes. It takes many experiments with different ingredients at different ratios in various combinations. Don’t worry; as a scientist I am used to failure.

Berry coconut muffins 2Well I feel that I succeeded with these Berry and coconut muffins. It is difficult to make muffins with a light texture when eliminating grain flours, so for these muffins I used ½ cup of rolled oats ground into oat flour. Making your own oat flour is quite a good option health wise when you compare this to all-purpose, white wheat flour. Rolled oats contain 67 grams of carbohydrates/100 grams, 10.4 grams of dietary fibre/100 grams and about 13 grams of protein/100 grams. On the other hand, all-purpose, white wheat flour contains 76 grams of carbohydrates/100 grams, only 3 grams of dietary fibre/100 grams and 10 grams of protein/100 grams. I also included coconut flour to reduce the carbs and increase the fibre content. The moisture was provided by coconut milk, Greek yoghurt and egg whites, while the berries plus the coconut essence provided the flavour. I sweetened the muffins with stevia. So overall, compared to a traditional, store bought muffin, these muffins are most definitely lower in carbs and higher in nutritional value.

Berry coconut muffins plateOh I almost forgot the Lemon cottage cheese topping. Don’t be fooled by this 1980’s diet food. I predict that cottage cheese is going to make a come back. I love the stuff. It is low in carbs (6.1 grams/100 grams) and low in fat (2.2 grams/100 grams) but has a decent amount of protein (10 grams/100 grams) with a nice texture. I processed it with Greek yoghurt, lemon juice, lemon zest, stevia and vanilla extract to create a delicious creamy topping for the muffins. I also enjoy cottage cheese with scrambled eggs, in smoothies and in salads.

Berry coconut muffins with topping

Lower carb berry and coconut muffins with Lemon cottage cheese topping

Makes 6 muffins

Ingredients

½ cup rolled oats

½ cup coconut flour

¼ cup desiccated coconut

2 tablespoons stevia

1 teaspoon baking powder

6 – 7 strawberries, washed and tops removed

½ cup frozen blueberries

1 teaspoon coconut essence

¾ cup coconut milk

½ cup Greek yoghurt

2 egg whites

Lemon cottage cheese cream

¼ cup cottage cheese

½ cup Greek yoghurt

½ tablespoon fresh lemon juice, strained

¼ teaspoon lemon zest

1 tablespoon stevia

½ teaspoon vanilla extract

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

Food processor

Large mixing bowl

Spoon

Muffin tray (I used a non-stick silicone muffin tray)

Small mixing bowl

Small strainer (for lemon juice)

Fine grater (for lemon zest)

Berry coconut muffinsMethod

  • Preheat the oven to 160°C. Add the rolled oats to a food processor and process until a coarse flour is achieved (it won’t be quite as fine as all-purpose wheat flour). Tip the oat flour into a large mixing bowl.
  • Add in the coconut flour, stevia and baking powder and mix to combine.
  • Add the strawberries to the rinsed food processor and process until they are finely chopped. Add the strawberries along with the remaining ingredients to the dry ingredients in the large mixing bowl. Mix well to combine the wet and dry ingredients.
  • Divide the muffin mixture evenly between the pans of a 6-pan muffin tray. Bake for about 40 minutes at 160°C.
  • While the muffins are baking, prepare the Lemon cottage cheese topping by adding all the ingredients to the food processor and processing until a smooth and even consistency is achieved. Allow the muffins to cool completely before spreading them with the Lemon cottage cheese topping.

Two mug cake recipes with no refined carbohydrates

Strawberry mugcake 2

If you can spare 10 minutes in the morning then a mug cake can be an easy, tasty and healthy breakfast option, when made with the right ingredients. I made this Strawberry mug cake this morning and topped it with an Orange ricotta cream. It might sound like I put in a lot of effort but in fact it was not much effort at all.

The mug cake was made with coconut flour and desiccated coconut, which provided fat and dietary fibre to keep me full. There was protein provided by the egg white, ricotta cheese and Greek yoghurt and strawberries for a small amount of carbohydrates and flavour. I sweetened the mug cake and the Orange ricotta cream with stevia to reduce the calories. It was really quite delicious. I added some coconut milk to the Orange ricotta cream, which made it a bit too runny. I would leave this out for a thicker consistency.

The other recipe is for a Mocha mug cake. I included chocolate flavoured whey powder in this one for extra protein and topped it with a sugar free Hazelnut chocolate cream that I had made over the weekend.

Mocha mugcakeI recently discovered that the secret to a great mug cake is to blend or process the ingredients. While there may be an extra wash up step I feel that it is worth it for the improvement in consistency and texture.

 Strawberry mug cake with Orange ricotta cream

Ingredients

2 tablespoons coconut flour

1 tablespoon desiccated coconut

½ teaspoon stevia

3 strawberries, washed and tops removed

1 egg white

1/3 cup reduced fat coconut cream or coconut milk

½ teaspoon baking powder

A few drops vanilla extract

Sprinkle of cinnamon

Orange ricotta cream

2 tablespoons ricotta cheese

1 tablespoon Greek yoghurt

1 teaspoon stevia

A few drops orange essence

Sprinkle of cinnamon

1 tablespoon of a good quality vanilla flavour whey protein powder (not really necessary but I wanted a bit of extra protein in my breakfast this morning)

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

Blender or food processor (I have discovered that this is the secret to making great mug cakes)

Mug

Spoon

Small bowl

Method

  • Place all the ingredients for the Strawberry mug cake into a blender or food processor. Blend/process until all the ingredients are well combined and the strawberries are finely chopped (I had some small chunks of strawberry remaining which I was fine with).
  • Pour the mixture into a mug and microwave on high for 3 – 4 minutes. Tip the mug upside down to remove the cake.
  • For the Orange ricotta cream, combine all the ingredients into a small bowl and mix well until a smooth, even consistency is achieved. Spoon this over your tasty Strawberry mug cake and enjoy your delicious, refined carbohydrate-free breakfast.Strawberry mug cake 3

 Mocha mug cake

Ingredients

1 ½ tablespoons coconut flour

1 tablespoon cocoa powder

1 teaspoon instant coffee

2 tablespoons of a good quality chocolate flavoured whey protein powder

1 egg white

½ cup low fat coconut milk

A few drops of vanilla extract

½ teaspoon baking powder

Utensils

Measuring cup and spoons

Blender or food processor

Mug

Spoon

Method

  • Place all the ingredients into a blender or food processor. Blend/process until all the ingredients are well combined and the mixture is fairly smooth.
  • Pour the mixture into a mug and microwave on high for 3 minutes.
  • Tip the mug upside down to remove the cake and smoother it with Hazelnut chocolate cream plus any other extras (nuts, coconut) to make it look pretty and taste delicious.Mocha mug cake 2

Low carb choc mint green smoothie bowl

Choc mint green smoothie bowl

After my recent success with a tasty frozen mint chocolate slice I thought that this combination would go very well in a smoothie bowl. I made this green smoothie bowl for breakfast two mornings in a row because it was so good (and had a lame attempt at food art). I used a combination of coconut milk and kefir, a fermented milk beverage that I have been experimenting with lately. It is produced by the action of bacteria and yeast living in a symbiotic relationship. I will be posting about this fermented beverage very soon, but first I must complete my research. You could substitute a couple of tablespoons of Greek yogurt for the kefir in this low carb choc mint smoothie bowl. I added the frozen peas for the thicker texture and for a little bit of extra fibre, protein and vitamins and minerals.

Low carb choc green mint smoothie bowl

Makes one serve

Ingredients

1/3 cup kefir

½ cup coconut milk

4 blocks frozen spinach

1/3 cup frozen peas

2 trays of ice cubes

1 ½ scoops (about 40 grams) of a good quality chocolate flavoured whey protein powder

2 tablespoons cocoa powder

½ teaspoon of peppermint essence

Coconut flakes, walnuts, cashews, cacao nibs or anything tasty, crunchy and reasonably healthy to sprinkle on top

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

High-speed blender (I use an Omniblend)

Method

  • Add all the ingredients into a high-speed blender and blend until the mixture is thick and smooth. This takes at least 5 minutes and I have to stir the mixture during this process.
  • Pour the smoothie into a bowl and arrange your tasty and crunchy toppings to look attractive. Eat with a spoon.

High protein banana loaf plus some interesting research on bananas

Protein banana loaf 2This was a great snack for the boyfriend and I on Saturday morning before we took our paddleskis out in the ocean. Now I know that I normally avoid carbs but considering we were about to undertake a fair amount of physical activity I didn’t think that some was going to kill me; remember carbohydrates should be relative to activity levels. Furthermore, the carbs in this banana loaf were fairly unrefined, meaning that there was still a decent amount of dietary fibre remaining, plus the bananas have some vitamins and minerals.

So I had a bit of a look into the scientific literature to see if I could find anything interesting to tell you about research that has been conducted on bananas. It turns out that ripe bananas or Musa acuminata, contain an interesting lectin termed BanLec. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins. BanLec binds to mannose structures, a carbohydrate that is found in abundance on the surface of the HIV-1 virus. A study published in 2010 in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, which is quite a reputable journal, showed that BanLec could inhibit viral replication of various subtypes of HIV-1. It was found that this lectin blocked HIV entry into host cells (1). A more recent study showed that BanLec prevented infection of tobacco plants with tobacco mosaic virus (2).

I am certainly not suggesting that you can prevent infection with HIV by eating bananas, I just found this interesting and there is potential to isolate BanLec and use it as an anti-HIV vaginal microbicide. I wondered, however, about the side effects from using lectins as treatment options, as I a lot of my research involves looking at carbohydrates or glycans and their interactions. It has been reported that BanLec has mitogenic properties (3), meaning it promotes cell division, which could lead to cancer. However, it may be possible to modify BanLec to prevent this action.

Anyway, despite the presence of BanLec, this High protein banana loaf made with rolled oats, whey protein powder and egg, as well as cinnamon and coconut essence for flavour, was a tasty snack full of energy and protein.

Protein banana loafHigh protein banana loaf

Makes 1 small loaf

Ingredients

1 ½ cup rolled oats

2 bananas

1 teaspoon baking powder

½ teaspoon cinnamon

40 grams (about 2 scoops) of a good quality vanilla whey protein powder

½ cup coconut milk

1 egg

½ teaspoon coconut essence

Utensils

Measuring cups and spoons

Large mixing bowl

Fork

Food processor

Spoon

Loaf pan (I used a non-stick silicone loaf pan)

Method

  • Preheat the oven to 160°C. Mash the bananas with a fork in the large mixing bowl.
  • Add 1 cup of the oats to a food processor and process until a flour-like texture is achieved.
  • Add the oat flour plus the remaining ½ cup of oats (or process all the oats if you prefer a finer textured loaf) along with the baking powder, cinnamon and whey protein powder to the mixing bowl and mix well to combine the ingredients.
  • Add in the coconut milk, egg and coconut essence and mix well to combine.
  • Pour the mixture into your loaf pan and bake in the oven 160°C for about 30 minutes or until the loaf feels firm on top. Allow the loaf to cool before removing from the pan and slicing.
  1. Swanson MD, Winter HC, Goldstein IJ, & Markovitz DM (2010) A lectin isolated from bananas is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication. The Journal of biological chemistry 285(12):8646-8655.
  2. LIu X-Y, Li H, & Zhang W (2014) The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 28(3):408-416.
  3. Gavrovic-Jankulovic M, et al. (2008) A novel recombinantly produced banana lectin isoform is a valuable tool for glycoproteomics and a potent modulator of the proliferation response in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ populations of human PBMCs. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 40(5):929-941.

How to make tahini

How to make tahini at homeTahini is so good. It has a smoky, nutty flavour that works well in so many dishes – sweet and savoury. I use tahini in salad dressings, in sauces, on eggs (in fact I had this homemade tahini on eggs this morning and I will describe these awesome eggs below), in dips, in brownies, in slices and even in my coconut milk ‘ice cream’. So I thought it was about time I had a go at making my own. It turns out it is very easy and the texture is great too. I actually prefer the texture of my homemade tahini to the store bought tahini. Here are the steps:

Step 1: Oven roast your sesame seeds at 160°C for about 15 minutes or until they start to turn golden brown. Do this on a silicon based baking tray or line a baking tray with baking paper. I started with 1 and a ½ cups of sesame seeds and this produced half a jar. Next time I would go with at least 2 cups because I figure if I am going to put in that effort then I may as well make a decent amount.

Step 2: Add the roasted sesame seeds to a food processor and process until the sesame seeds, basically, turn into tahini. You will need to scrape the sides of the food processor with a spoon during this process. This took no longer than 10 minutes (I wasn’t timing to be honest).

Step 3: Pour your delicious tahini into a clean jar and enjoy!

Not only is tahini delicious and versatile, but it also has beneficial properties. Sesame seeds contain about 50% fat, predominantly in the form of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (1, 2). PUFAs have been shown to have cardiovascular protective effects (3). Be mindful, however, that due to the high fat content of sesame seeds, tahini is high in calories (like all nut and seed butters), so if you are actively trying to lose weight I suggest you limit the amount you eat. As well as the oil, sesame seeds also contain about 20% protein, a range of vitamins and minerals, including calcium, magnesium, iron and vitamin B. The most interesting compounds in sesame seeds are the sesame lignans, which include sesamin, sesamolin and sesaminol. I have previously talked about these lignans in my post ‘Low carb bibimbap’. Research into these lignans has shown that they display antioxidant properties (4), meaning these compounds can scavenge free radicals, which are believed to contribute to life style diseases such as circulatory disorders and aging. Additionally, research conducted on lignans has shown serum lipid lowering and cholesterol lowering effects in experimental animals (5-7) and humans (8).

Homemade tahini on eggsSo you are probably wondering about the cost. Did I save money by making my own tahini? Well I paid $9.00/kg for sesame seeds and I used about 250 grams ($2.25) to make approximately half a jar. I normally pay $5.10 for a full jar of tahini, so I could potentially save myself 60 cents per jar. 60 cents does not sound like much but I buy a jar of tahini almost every fortnight, so that is $15.60 a year. If I could buy sesame seeds even cheaper then I could save even more. Will I continue to make my own tahini? If I have the time then yes, I probably would as I quite enjoyed the process and I enjoyed the texture. Plus there was no added oil – just sesame seeds. I had scrambled eggs, vegetables and lentils this morning with my delicious homemade tahini on top, along with cottage cheese, extra sesame seeds, salt, pepper and some homemade fermented sweet chilli sauce – similar to sriracha. I may post this recipe soon. Have a go at making tahini. You will be impressed.

  1. Beroza M & Kinman ML (1955) Sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol content of the oil of sesame seed as affected by strain, location growth, aging, and frost damage. J Am Oil Chem Soc 32:348-350.
  2. Chen P, et al. (2005) Dietary sesame reduces serum cholesterol and enhances antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemia. Nutr Res 25:559-567.
  3. Morris MC (1994) Dietary fats and blood pressure. Journal of cardiovascular risk 1(1):21-30.
  4. Fukuda Y, Nagate M, Osawa T, & Namiki M (1986) Chemical aspects of the antioxidative activity of unroasted sesame seed oil and the effect of using the oil for frying. Agri Biol Chem 50:857.
  5. Hirose N, et al. (1991) Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in rats by sesamin. Journal of lipid research 32(4):629-638.
  6. Ide T, et al. (2001) Sesamin, a sesame lignan, decreases fatty acid synthesis in rat liver accompanying the down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1534(1):1-13.
  7. Sugano M, et al. (1990) Influence of sesame lignans on various lipid parameters in rats. Agric Biol Chem Tokyo 54:2669-2673.
  8. Alipoor B, Haghighian MK, Sadat BE, & Asghari M (2012) Effect of sesame seed on lipid profile and redox status in hyperlipidemic patients. International journal of food sciences and nutrition 63(6):674-678.